Ackerman, Gerald M. Charles Bargue with the collaboration of Jean-Léon Gérôme: Drawing Course.France: ACR Edition, 2003. Popular late nineteenth-century manual produced and published with the participation of painter and teacher Jean-Léon Gérôme, reissued with support from the Dahesh Museum, New York City, with essay by the distinguished scholar of Gérôme and nineteenth-century Orientalism.
Adler, Kathleen, Erica Hirshler and Barbara Weinberg, et al. Americans in Paris 1860–1900.New Haven andLondon:YaleUniversity Press, 2006. Catalogue of an exhibition including historic drawings by American artists inParis, with essays on the Académie Julian and other training ateliers.
Allen, ElizabethK. Open-Air sketching; Nineteenth Century American Landscape Drawings in the Albany Institute of History and Art.Albany,New York. Albany Institute of History and Art. 1998. Exhibition catalogue.
Anonymous. A Drawing Book of Landscapes, Philadelphia, PA. 1810. An early US instructional manual based on Edward Langley’s Drawing Book of Landscapes published inLondon a few years before.
Aristides, Juliette. Classical Drawing Atelier: A Contemporary Guide to Traditional Studio Practice. New York: Watson-Guptill, 2006. New textbook covering a sequence of traditional skills, from principles of design to cast drawing, anatomy and composition; illustrated by historical examples juxtaposed with works by artists associated with the current atelier movement.
Bermingham, Ann. Learning to Draw: Studies in the Cultural History of a Polite and Useful Art. New Haven andLondon:YaleUniversity Press,PaulMellonCenter for Studies of British Art, 2000. Scholarly investigation of amateur and professional drawing instruction in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Bridgman, George Brandt. Bridgman’s Complete Guide to Drawing from Life / with drawings and text by George B. Bridgman, edited by Howard Simon.New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1952. Popular textbook on life drawing by Art Students League instructor Bridgman.
Callow, James T. Robert Weir and the Sketch Club.West Point,New York: Cadet Fine Arts Forum of theUnited States Corps of Cadets, 1976. Essay for the catalogue of the 1976 exhibition atWest Point.
Chaet, Bernard. The Art of Drawing. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. The first comprehensive drawing book to juxtapose master drawings with student work, produced in Chaet’s drawing class at Yale. The discussion follows subjects such as figures, heads and animals in a text designed for a college or university semester.
Chapman, John Gadsby, N.A. American Drawing Book: A Manual for the Amateur and Basis of Study for the Professional Artist, Especially Adapted to the Use of Public and Private Schools as Well as Home Instruction. New York: J.S. Redfield, Clinton Hall 1847 (and subsequent editions). Highly popular manual of drawing written by American art crusader and history painter John G. Chapman, whose works include The Marriage of Pocahontas. It became a standard textbook for decades. Chapman later founded an American art school inRome with his sons.
Cuthbert, John A. and Jessie Poesch. David Hunter Strother: “One of the Best Draughtsmen the Country Possesses.” Morgantown, West Virginia: University of West Virginia Press, 1977. Catalogue for an exhibition of the rediscovered American artist, soldier and diarist Strother (also known as “Porte-Crayon”), provides insights into the training of artists in the 1850s, both in the U.S. and in Europe, and the American art scene before and after the Civil War. Link:http://valley.vcdh.virginia.edu/porte.crayon/porte.html
Davenport, Guy. The Drawings of Paul Cadmus with an introduction by Guy Davenport.New York: Rizzoli, 1998. LC89–42957. Narrative painter Paul Cadmus, whose life spanned the twentieth century, produced brilliant drawings in a classical manner throughout a very long career noted for its indifference to pressure from modernist trends. To those currently reviving traditional drawing practice, Cadmus should stand as a beacon and model of personal conviction.
Davis, Elliott Bostwick. Training the Eye and the Hand: Fitz Hugh (sic) Lane and Nineteenth-Century Drawing Books. Gloucester,Massachusetts:CapeAnne Historical Society. 1993. This catalogue of a 1993–1994 exhibition examines the impact of instructional books such as Lucas’s and Chapman’s on drawing practices as used byNew England maritime artistFitz Henry Lane (previously misidentified asFitz Hugh Lane).
Dee, Elaine Evans. To Embrace the Universe: Drawings by Frederic Edwin Church.Yonkers,New York: TheHudson RiverMuseum, 1984. Catalogue of an exhibition of drawings by landscape painter Frederic Church.
Durand, Asher B. “Letters on Landscape Painting,” originally published in The Crayon (1855), reprinted in Kindred Spirits: Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape, edited by Linda S. Ferber. Brooklyn:BrooklynMuseum in association with
D. Giles Limited,London, 2007. Historically important discussion of fidelity to nature and close observation as an imperative of plein-air sketching.
Felker, Tracie. Master Drawings of the Hudson River School.New York. MetropolitanMuseum ofArt; and Gallery Association ofNew YorkState. 1993. Exhibition catalogue.
Foster, Kathleen A., with an essay by Amy B. Werbel. A Drawing Manual by Thomas Eakins.New Haven andLondon: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press, 2005. Previously unpublished manual byPhiladelphia painter Thomas Eakins, written for his students at thePennsylvaniaAcademy of the Fine Arts, dealing mostly with perspective, with an essay on drawing instruction and the American Art Crusade.
Gerdts, William. Robert Weir: Artist and Teacher of West Point.West Point,New York: Cadet Fine Arts Forum of theUnited States Corps of Cadets, 1976. Essay for the catalogue of the 1976 exhibition atWest Point.
Glanz, Dawn. How the West Was Drawn: American Arts and the Settling of the Frontier.Ann Arbor,Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1982. With numerous other essays and writings by this distinguished Americanist.
Hale, Robert Beverly. Anatomy Lessons from the Great Masters.New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1977. Influential Art Students League of New York instructor RobertBeverly Hale’s famous lectures on anatomy are also available on video. The title of the book is self-descriptive.
Haverkamp-Begemann, Egbert. Creative Copies: Interpretive Drawings from Michelangelo to Picasso. London: Philip Wilson Publishers, 1988. Catalogue of an exhibition at The Drawing Center inNew York, written by the distinguished scholar of Dutch and Northern Baroque art. Illuminating study of how artists shape their own vision by copying previous masters and absorbing the lessons of the past.
Karolik Collection. M. and M. Karolik Collection of American Watercolors and Drawings 1800–1875. Two volumes.Boston:Museum ofFine Arts, 1962.
The Katalan Collection of Italian Drawings.FrancesLehmanLoebArtCenter.Poughkeepsie,New York. 1995. ISBN: 0-9644263-1-5 Catalogue of the 1995 exhibition highlights drawings collected by painter and graphic designer Jak Katalan
Korzenik, Diana, with foreword by Rudolph Arnheim. Drawn to Art: A Nineteenth-Century American Dream.Hanover,New Hampshire: University Press ofNew England, 1985.
Lucas, Fielding. The Art of Drawing, Colouring and Painting Landscpes, in Watercolours.Baltimore, 1815. This instructional manual included drawings and watercolors by architect William Strickland, designer of the Philadelphia Waterworks, and John Latrobe, son of Benjamin. One of a number of instructional books by the influential publisher Fielding Lucas.
Lucas, Fielding and John Latrobe. Progressive Drawing Book. Baltimore, 1825. Lucas’s drawing manual predated both Peale’s and Chapman’s mass-market publications yet remained a popular instructional guide into the second half of the nineteenth century.
New YorkPublic Library Collection. Author unknown. The Progressive Drawing Book; containing a series of easy and comprehensive lessons for drawing…without the aid of a master. Also a complete treatise on perspective. With nearly 300 engravings.London, 1853.
Marzio, Peter C. The Art Crusade and Analysis of American Drawing Manuals 1820–1860.Washington,D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. This book examines drawing instruction in relation to artistic training, amateur study and general education in theUnited States, at a time when public education was being invented and drawing was still widely regarded as a basic and necessary realm of competency.
Miller, Jo. Drawings of the Hudson River School 1825-1875.New York.BrooklynMuseum of Art. 1969. Exhibition catalogue focusing on graphic works by Hudson River School Artists.
Nicolaides, Kimon. The Natural Way to Draw: A Working Plan for Art Study.Wilmington,Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. One of the most durable and popular instructional books on drawing in print, focusing on popular exercises for defining gesture and massing volume.
Peale, Rembrandt. Graphics; A Manual of Drawing and Writing for the Use of Schools and Families.New York: B. & S. Collins. 1835. Painter and writer Rembrandt Peale (son of Charles Willson Peale) established the first public school drawing program in Philadelphia Boys’ High School in the 1830s. This popular and affordable instructional manual was revised and updated regularly for another three decades.
Phagan, Patricia. Hudson River School Drawings from the Dia Art Foundation; April 12- June 15, 2003.Poughkeepsie,New York.FrancesLehmanLoebArtCenter,VassarCollege. 2007. This illustrated pamphlet with essay accompanied the 2003 exhibition and was made available for the 2007 “Hudson River Trilogy” atVassarCollege. Many of the drawings in the collection, on extended loan to theLoebArtCenter at Vassar, were collected by artist Dan Flavin. They have been on loan to theLoebArtCenter since 2001.
Postle, Martin and William Vaughan. The Artist's Model—from Etty to Spencer. London: Merrell Holberton, 1999. This catalogue explores the rise in the use of live, nude models in academic settings such as schools, sketch clubs and artists’ studios. Produced for an exhibition that traveled in theUnited Kingdom toYork, Nottingham andLondon.
Prown, Jules. “An Anatomy Book by John Singleton Copley.” Art Quarterly 26 (Spring 1963), pp. 31–46. An essay describing the compilation in 1756 by thenBoston painter Copley of a guide to human anatomy for artists, at a time when the nude was a genre outside the practice of American artists.
Rawson, Philip. Drawing.Philadelphia:University ofPennsylvania Press, 1987. A solid exploration of the theory, materials, techniques and subjects of drawing, with a wide range of historical examples.
Reel, David M. “The Drawing Curriculum at the U.S.MilitaryAcademyduring the Nineteenth Century.” West Point, Points West. Western Passages, No. 1.Denver,Colorado:Institute ofWestern American Art,DenverArt Museum, 2002. Essay on the genesis and duration of theWest PointDrawingAcademy up to its elimination in 1920, in a collection of essays about art atWest Point by Joan Troccoli, Byron Price, Roger Echo Hawk and John Pulz.
Robertson, Archibald. Elements of the Graphic Arts.New York, 1802. Miniaturists Robertson and his brother Alexander ran the Columbian Academy of Art onLiberty Street inManhattan for several decades after coming toNew York in the 1790s. His instructional book contains diagrams and advice to students.
Ruskin, John. The Elements of Drawing. New York:Dover Publications, 1971. This classic work, originally published in 1857, exists in numerous editions, this being the most affordable. Ruskin blends a sequence of drawing exercises with artistic philosophy and advice to aspiring artists and amateurs.
Ryder, Anthony. The Artist’s Complete Guide to Figure Drawing: A Contemporary Perspective on the Classical Tradition.New York: Watson-Guptill, Ryder 2000. Ryder details method for rendering the figure in a classical manner, using mostly his own work to demonstrate the process.
Shelley, Marjorie. “The Craft of American Drawing: Early Eighteenth to Late Nineteenth Century”, in Avery, Kevin J. American Drawings and Watercolors in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume 1.New York. MetropolitanMuseum ofArt; andNew Haven andLondon:YaleUniversity Press, 2002. 28-72. A discussion of historic drawing methods and techniques, included in Avery’s compendium
Stebbins, Theodore. American Drawings and Watercolors.New York: Harper and Row, The Drawing Society, 1976. This definitive, comprehensive work accompanied a 1977 exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art, covering a time period from early Colonial to the 1970s.
Steinhart, Peter. The Undressed Art: Why We Draw.New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. A lively study of the psychology and social rituals surrounding the contemporary figure drawing revival.
Wilmerding, John. American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850–1875.Washington,D.C.: National Gallery of Art in association with Harper & Row, 1980. Essay on drawing in a groundbreaking study of a significant period in American art. Includes a discussion of the impact of drawing practice on Luminist painting.